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Association of Glutathione S Transferase (GSTM1 and GSTT1) Genetic Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Murtadha Jawad Al-Barqaawee and Alaa Shaker Al-Nahi
Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Kufa, Iraq
Abstract
The occurrence of abnormal balance between both anti-oxidant defenses and free radicals raises the oxidative stress, which is associated with
damage to macromolecules and cell dysfunction which leads to variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer and diabetes mellitus.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes. An important condition influencing GSTs gene expression is
oxidative stress, often noticed in diabetes.
Multiplex PCR was conducted to detect the polymorphisms of
GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes. Observations on a 100 type 2 diabetes mellitus
(T2DM) patients and 40 non diabetic as control were used. The associations of various null and present genotypes of both
GSTT1 and GSTM1
genes with fast blood glucose, lipids profile and blood pressure were compared between the two groups.
Null
GSTT1 genotype (66%) was 5.11 folds more than control (27.5). Null GSTM1 genotype (65%) was 4.33 folds more than control (30%).
Null
GSTT1 and null GSTM1 genotype (60%) was 5.16 folds more than control (22.5%).
Both present
GSTT1 and present GSTM1 genotypes conferred statistical significance decrease in the risk to T2DM comparing to null
genotypes.
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP & DBP) was significantly higher in individuals of null
GSTT1 and GSTM1 than in those with
present
GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes respectively. Fasting blood glucose and triglycerides were significantly higher in individuals of null
GSTT1 than in those with present genotype, whereas, HDL was significantly lower than in those with present GSTT1 genotype. Fasting blood
glucose and triglycerides of null
GSTM1 genotype were significantly higher than in those with present GSTM1 genotype, whereas HDL was
significantly lower than in those with present
GSTM1 genotype (p ≤ 0.05).
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