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Hydrothermally growth of TiO2 Nanorods, characterization and annealing temperature effect

Nada Falih M.,2
Saleem Azara Hussain,3
Shawki Khalaf Muhammad 1
Adel H. Omran Alkhayatt* 1
Faculty of Science, University of Kuf, Iraq 2
College of Education, University of Al Qadisiyah, Iraq
Faculty of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq
*Corresponding author: adilh.alkhayat@uokufa.edu.iq
Titanium dioxide TiO2
nanorods were successfully grown on conductive glass FTO substrate
using the hydrothermal method at a temperature of 160 oC. Surface topography, structure, and
optical characteristics were studied according to the influence of annealing temperature (450,
550, and 650) oC. The surface topography results reveal that the TiO2
had nanorods structure with
a tetragonal shape, and the rod diameter increases from 84.2 nm to 116.6 nm with increasing the
annealing temperature. The crystal structure of the grown TiO2
NRs exhibits a high crystallinity
of polycrystalline nature with anatase and rutile phases. The preferential orientation was along
(204) plane for anatase tetragonal structure. AFM image shows an intense edge, uniform surface
morphology, and increased grain diameter with annealing temperature. The optical properties
of TiO2
NRs were investigated, and the absorption edge shows a blue shifting as the annealing
temperature increases when considering the crystallinity and morphology changes. The energy
band gap was found to be lower than 3 eV, which can be attributed to the presence of anatase
and rutile phases with an increment range from 2.72 to 2.86 nm alongside the increase in
the annealing temperature. The results indicate that the adopted hydrothermal method and the
synthesized TiO2
NRs were suitable for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.
Keywords: Anatase and rutile phases; annealing effect TiO2
nanorods; hydrothermal method;
surface morphology

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