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Toxoplasma gondii

The protozoan mammalian parasite Toxoplasma gondii is ingested if
oocytes excreted in cats or present in
inadequate meat are transmitted. Invasive forms penetrate the bloodstream to
the brain , heart and pulm, creating cystic aggregates which remain latent,
but which can be reactivated during their lives. The majority of
people in many cultures have been diagnosed with early infancy, but healthy
individuals do not develop clinically obvious diseases. However,
toxoplasmosis has significant consequences for HIV-infected patients.
In particular in low- and middle-income countries ( LMICs), toxoplasmosis
represents a major public health problem. More than 29 percent of the world
's population give serological evidence of T. gondii. Infection with The
parasite is transmitted horizontally to humans mainly by ingesting, handling
and treating water , food or soil that has oocyst contamination or raw or
undercooked cyst-containing meat. Infection in much more than 80% of
immunocompetents is symptomless or flu-like in over 80 percent . Although
T. gondii Parasite is kept at a dormant stage is called bradyzoites and will be
an active form by weakening the immune system leading to clinical
manifestations known as toxoplasmosis. Infections such as HIV, fatty liver
diseases, or physiologic reaction shifts, such as in the case of pregnancy, can
be due to reduced immunity .
If during pregnancy primary infection occurs, T. gondii Crossing the
placenta, may be transmitted vertically to the fetus (congenital toxoplasm).
Congenital toxoplasmosis may lead to abortions, death or significant
sequelae in the eyes and neurology ranging from slightly less visual to
serious disorders, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephalus and
intracerebral calcification . The risk of infecting child and of harming fetus
depends on age of gestation when a mother is infected . This may lead to
serious damage to the brain of the fetus, stroke, hydrocephalus,
chorioretinitis, and mental delay . During pregnancy there are 20 to 50
percent risk of congenital infections from primary T. gondii infection if
untreated. The detection of nonimmune women at the start of pregnancy,
details about the way infection is to be avoided, and serological follow-up
will prevent congenital toxoplasmosis. Repeated testing of the specific IgG
and IgM is based on the serological follow-up to identify acute and chronic
infections in case of positivity .
Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence rates tend to increase; even so,
infection rates depend on dietary habits, health standards and socioeconomic
standards vary widly among countries and regions. In most industrialized

countries, improvements in hygiene conditions and farming systems and
increased socio-economic levels have led to a decline in seroprevalence .
Human persons are infected by intake in raw or undercooked meat of
sporulated oocysts, contact with cat feces, soil, and by ingesting
contaminated food and water. The transmission to the fetus and organ
donation from infected donors involved other unusual causes of the
transmission . Each stage of the life cycle involves multiple virulence
factors, allows the immune system to be compromised and a chronic
infection developed, and no human toxoplasmosis vaccine has until now
been approved

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