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Estimation of Radiation Dose from Most Common Pediatrics Radiographic Examinations within Main Central Hospitals in Najaf City, Iraq

Raed Mohammed Kadhim M.Ali1* Hussien Abid Ali Bakir Mraity2
1Physiology and Medical Physics Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
2 Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq. *Corresponding author: raedm.kadhim@uokufa.edu.iq*, hussein.mraity@uokufa.edu.iq *ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5613-9771 * , https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4011-4099
Received 7/12/2020, Accepted 6/7/2021, Published Online First 20/11/2021 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Abstract:
In this study the Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) received by pediatrics patients undergoing chest, abdomen and skull X-ray examinations was estimated. The study was conducted in two hospitals in Najaf city where three radiographic systems were considered. The study participants were classified into four age groups 0-1 , 1-5 , 5-10 and 10-15 years. Calculations were performed using exposure factors, kVp, mAs and focal-skin distance, together with patient data age. The ESD was calculated for the involved patients who underwent an Antero-posterior (AP) chest, abdomen and skull X-ray examination. The resulted data were analyzed and compared with international dose references. For all studied radiographic examinations and all X-ray machines, the ESD increases with age. The lowest recorded radiation dose was from hospital 1 machine 2. In this facility ESD ranged from 19.93 μGy to 67.66 μGy for chest X-ray, from 39.03 μGy to 82.63 μGy for abdomen (AP), and from 35.47 μGy to 94.27 μGy for skull (AP). In contrast the highest dose levels are recorded from hospital 2 machine 1; the minimum ESD for chest X-ray is 247.51 μGy and the maximum is 2393.12 μGy; for abdomen X-ray the lowest ESD is 269.05 μGy and the highest value is 5106.15 μGy; and for skull X-ray minimum values is 430.96 μGy and the maximum value is 3072.77 μGy. In conclusion, for the considered pediatrics examinations, most of ESD values are within the international acceptable level and some are higher >100% .
Keywords: Children, Dose calculation, Dosimetry, Radiation risk, Surface dose

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