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Correlation of COVID-19 Receptors with Neutrophils and Their Role in the Adherence of Co-Infected Bacteria

Abdulhameed Nuri Shamsa, R1 *
, Ali Al-Dahhan, H. A1
1. Laboratory Investigation Department, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq
Received 5 December 2021; Accepted 16 January 2022
Corresponding Author: rajashamsa1@gmail.com
The COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has an impact on all aspects of patient care. Since the onset of
this disease pandemic in 2019, numerous studies have been published which have attempted to identify virus
receptors in the upper respiratory tract, such as nasal, oropharynx, and lung and their role in coinfection of
bacterial adherence. In this study, the level of m RNA for platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R) and
angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2-R) were detected in the whole blood of COVID-19 patients
and controlled by using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique. The results of the
expression level of the PAF-R gene were higher in patients (43 ± 12.5) than in the healthy control (40 ± 2.1).
Moreover, the expression level of ACE2-R was significantly (0.0001) increased in patients (27.5±6.2),
compared to the control group. In addition, there was an elevation of neutrophils (79.6±17.6%) and PAF-R level
(43%) in COVID-19 patients in comparison to the control (40) with a positive correlation between these factors
(r=0.8769, P=0.0001). Nasopharyngeal epithelial cells showed a higher adherence rate (86%) to both bacteria
isolates (Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus) in patients than in the control group. Increased
expression of PAF-R and ACE2-R genes in COVID-19 patients and co-infected bacteria disease could be the
factors for the SARS-CoV-2 virus to enter the cells of the host.
Keywords: ACE2-R, COVID-19, Neutrophil, PAF-R, RT-PCR, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus

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